Lebih Akurat Deteksi Kanker Payudara

23.28 Diposting oleh Smart Women

Cara deteksi kanker payudara bukan hanya mammografi, tapi masih ada beberapa cara lain. Yuk, cari tahu banyak cara mendeteksi kesehatan payudara sejak dini!

Tanpa disadari wanita selalu diintai berbagai penyakit mematikan, salah satunya kanker payudara, pembunuh diam-diam yang masih terus meningkat risikonya dari tahun ke tahun. Berdasarkan laporan WHO setidaknya terdapat 1,1 jt-an kasus baru setiap tahun yang muncul di seluruh dunia. Dan, hampir separuh lebih terjadi pada negara-negara baru berkembang.

Benjolan Tak Selalu Nampak

"Yang dikhawatirkan sekarang, ada tren penurunan umur penderita kanker payudara. Kalau dulu kebanyakan terjadi pada umur 35-55 tahun dan jarang di bawah usia 25 tahun, sekarang bergeser lebih muda. Sekarang kejadian cukup banyak pada usia 20-30 tahun. Bahkan berdasarkan pengalaman pribadi saya, ada anak perempuan usia 15 tahun yang sudah menderita kanker payudara," papar dr.Sutjipto,Sp.B (K) Onk. , spesialis bedah onkologi dari Siloam Hospitals yang juga ketua Yayasan Kesehatan Payudara Jakarta.

Apa penyebabnya? Menurut penelitian, kanker payudara yang disebabkan oleh faktor genetik hanya sekitar 5-7,5 persen. Sebagian besar kasus kanker payudara merupakan faktor-faktor di luar genetik sehingga kadang dokter pun sulit untuk menjawab, apa penyebab pasti pencetus kanker payudara.

Sayangnya, berdasarkan pengalaman Sutjipto sekitar 60-70 persen pasien yang datang ke rumah sakit sudah dalam kondisi menderita kanker payudara stadium III ke atas. Ini disebabkan kebanyakan kanker payudara stadium awal tidak selalu nampak benjolan maupun menimbulkan keluhan apapun bagi penderitanya.

Jadi memang tidak bisa dicegah secara mutlak sehingga yang bisa dilakukan hanya dengan mendeteksi sedini mungkin agar tidak terlambat diketahui.

Periksa Sendiri

Hal yang paling mudah dilakukan adalah SADARI atau pemeriksaan payudara sendiri.
Sutjipto menganjurkan bagi remaja putri, sejak menginjak usia 20 tahun melakukan SADARI secara rutin. Ini bisa dilakukan setiap kali setelah mandi dan diluar masa menstruasi.

Caranya, berdiri di depan kaca, tangan kanan memeriksa payudara kiri dan demikian pula sebaliknya. Lakukan pemeriksaan dengan meraba memutar telapak tangan seiring jarum jam dan sebaliknya berulang kali. Pastikan, tidak ada bejolan atau gronjolan di dalam payudara.

USG Payudara

Sedangkan bagi para wanita yang telah menginjak usia 30 tahun, lakukan USG payudara atau breast ultrasound . Caranya mirip dengan USG kandungan.
Pertama-tama, pasien diminta berbaring di atas tempat tidur kemudian bagian payudara diberikan gel. Lalu petugas medis akan menjalankan transduser ke seputar payudara untuk mendapatkan gambaran adanya tumor ataupun kista di dalam payudara.

Mammografi Tak Lagi Menyakitkan

Ketika memasuki usia 40 tahun, Sutjipto menganjurkan untuk melakukan kombinasi kedua cara deteksi (USG dan SADARI) dengan mammografi.

Mammografi sebaiknya dilakukan 3 tahun sekali untuk pasien berusia 40-45 tahun. Namun khusus bagi yang berisiko tinggi seperti, gemuk, belum punya anak dan ada riwayat kanker dalam keluarga, mammografi bisa dilakukan setiap 2 tahun sekali.

Sedangkan ketika memasuki usia 50 tahun, mammografi bisa dilakukan 2-3 tahun sekali. Begitu pula ketika wanita telah berusia di atas 60 tahun, mammografi dilakukan sekitar 1-2 tahun sekali.

Tidak perlu takut dengan mammografi karena alat mammografi yang sekarang sudah cukup terkomputerisasi. Sistim komputerisasi ini memungkinkan penekanan secukupnya untuk mendapatkan gambaran akurat kondisi kelenjar susu.
"Jadi tidak perlu takut sakit maupun akan memicu kanker lebih ganas," ungkap Sutjipto meluruskan anggapan yang salah di masyarakat.

Cara melakukan mammografi ini seperti rontgen dada. Pertama-tama, pasien diminta melepaskan berbagai aksesori logam dan pakaian serta hanya menggunakan pakaian khusus mammografi.

Untuk posisi saat melakukan mammografi, bisa dengan duduk atau berdiri tergantung peralatan yang digunakan. Kemudian salah satu payudara diletakkan di atas plat datar dan di bagian atas ada semacam plastik yang menekan payudara ke bawah untuk meratakan. Cara ini dimaksudkan untuk memperlihatkan jaringan payudara yang akan disinar-X.

Foto-foto kelenjar payudara ini akan diambil dari berbagai sudut untuk memperoleh akurasi yang optimum. Pada mesin mammografi jenis Full Field Digital Mammography (FFDM) yang bekerja secara digital, gambar sinar-X yang didapat dapat dimanipulasi di layar komputer sehingga meningkatkan akurasi hasil foto sinar-X.

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